Variability helps mammals to become invasive


Share post:

From the time humans began discovering and conquering new continents, they also started transporting animals and plants around the world and releasing them in locations where they never occurred before. Most of these alien species died out quickly, but many established populations and some even multiplied and became invasive, causing tremendous economic and environmental harm.

Variability helps mammals to become invasive
Many mammal species are highly variable in their body size, here illustrated by 
the sizes of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, upper row) and hare (Lepus europaeus, 
lower row) skulls. The picture was taken with skulls from the collection of the 
Estación Biológica de Doñana-CSIC, Sevilla, Spain 
[Credit: © Héctor Garrido (Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC)]

In a recently published article in the journal The American Naturalist, scientists from Spain, Switzerland and Germany argue that successful invaders are particularly variable and can therefore adapt to many different environmental conditions.

In Australia, for example, rabbits have devastated large areas of fertile land resulting in millions of dollars of damage to crops each year and the extinction of many native species. In Europe, there are about 13,000 known alien species, which cost more than €12 billion (US $14 billion) in damages each year.

To prevent further problems, scientists have searched for general traits that could characterize successful invaders. Unfortunately, this search has had limited success.

In the new study Manuela González-Suárez (Estación Biológica de Doñana CSIC, Spain), Sven Bacher (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) and Jonathan Jeschke (Technische Universität München, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries and Freie Universität Berlin, Germany) suggest that previous research largely failed to identify predictive factors for invasion success because it generally focused on average species traits.

The authors argue that species exposed to a novel environment will have higher chances of surviving if they are variable and can therefore adapt to many different environmental conditions.

The study analyzes a global dataset of introductions of mammals to locations outside their native ranges and shows that species with large variation in body size establish more often.

These findings can help predict and prevent new invasions, for example by focusing control measures on the most variable species.

In addition, the study can also help improve the control of biological pest organisms or the reintroduction of species of conservation concern.

Source: Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (FVB) [April 08, 2015]



Related articles

Anglo Saxon feasting hall unearthed in Kent

The foundations of a spectacular Anglo-Saxon feasting hall, a place where a king and his warriors would have...

New study quantifies the effects of climate change in Europe

If no further action is taken and global temperature increases by 3.5°C, climate damages in the EU could...

Historical relics unearthed in China’s Henan

In the past nine years, great amounts of significant discoveries have been made in the process of the...

Astronomers identify a young heavyweight star in the Milky Way

Astronomers have identified a young star, located almost 11,000 light years away, which could help us understand how...

Sea Shepherd catches Japanese fleet, four whales dead

Militant anti-whaling activists Sea Shepherd said they had zeroed in on a Japanese fleet Monday and captured evidence...

Rocky planets may orbit many double stars

Luke Skywalker's home in "Star Wars" is the desert planet Tatooine, with twin sunsets because it orbits two...

Atlas of the Milky Way

It may not be much use to hitchhikers through the galaxy, but it is extremely valuable to astronomers:...

Millennia-old burial chamber found in Oman

An international team of archaeologists has stumbled upon a cache of relics dating back several millennia in the...