The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals


Share post:

Deep in the caves of Goyet in Belgium researchers have found the grisly evidence that the Neanderthals did not just feast on horses or reindeer, but also on each other.

The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals
Belgian archaeologist Christian Casseyas shows the latest explored area as he gives a tour of the Goyet cave,
 where 96 bones and three teeth from five Neanderthal individuals were found 
[Credit: Emmanuel Dunand, AFP]

Human bones from a newborn, a child and four adults or teenagers who lived around 40,000 years ago show clear signs of cutting and of fractures to extract the marrow within, they say.

“It is irrefutable, cannibalism was practised here,” says Belgian archaeologist Christian Casseyas as he looks inside a cave halfway up a valley in this site in the Ardennes forest.

The bones in Goyet date from when Neanderthals were nearing the end of their time on earth before being replaced by Homo sapiens, with whom they also interbred.

Once regarded as primitive cavemen driven to extinction by smarter modern humans, studies have found that Neanderthals were actually sophisticated beings who took care of the bodies of the deceased and held burial rituals.

But there is a growing body of proof that they also ate their dead.

The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals
Helene Rougier, anthropologist at California State University, Northridge, displays some of the bones and teeth from 
Neanderthals which were found inside the Goyet cave, at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels 
[Credit: Emmanuel Dunand, AFP]

Cases of Neanderthal cannibalism have been found until now only in Neanderthal populations in southern Europe in Spain, at El Sidron and Zafarraya, and in France, at Moula-Guercy and Les Pradelles.

The caves at Goyet have been occupied since the Paleolithic era. The 250-metre- (820-feet-) long galleries were dug into the limestone by the Samson, a small stream that still flows a few metres below.

They began to reveal their secrets in the middle of the 19th century thanks to one of the fathers of palaeontology, Edouard Dupont (1841-1911).

A geologist and director of the Royal Museum of Natural History of Belgium, he searched several caves, including that of Goyet in 1867, and collected an enormous quantity of bones and tools.

Just a few years after Charles Darwin first expounded his theory of evolution, Dupont published the results of his own research in his book “Man During the Stone Age”.

The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals
Archaeologists pieced together 99 Neanderthal bone fragments, finding evidence of cannibalism 
[Credit: AFP]

But his discoveries remained in the archives of the museum (now called the Brussels Institute of Natural Sciences) for more than a century.

That was until 2004, when the institute’s head of anthropology Patrick Semal discovered, hidden in amongst the drawers of what Dupont thought were human bones, a jaw tip that clearly belonged to a Neanderthal.

Scientists have since been painstakingly sorting through fragments that Dupont thought were animal bones to see if there are other traces of ancient man.

Now an international team led by Helene Rougier, an anthropologist at California State University Northridge in the United States, has proved from the bones found at Goyet that the Neanderthals there were cannibals.

The bones show traces of cutting, “to disarticulate and remove the flesh,” said Christian Casseyas, who also leads tours for the public at the caves.

The caves that prove Neanderthals were cannibals

The Neanderthals “broke these bones in the same way that they broke those of the reindeer and horses found at the entrance of the cave, certainly to extract the marrow”, he adds.

Rougier, whose work on the Belgian cave was published last July by Scientific Reports, a journal of the Nature group, told AFP that “indeed, we can conclude that some Neanderthals died and were eaten here”, which is a first in Northern Europe.

“Some of these bones have also been used to make tools to touch up the edges of flints to re-sharpen them,” says Rougier.

But the reasons for the cannibalism remain a mystery, as to the extent to which the Neanderthals ate their dead.

“Was it systematic? Was it only at certain particular moments?” she asks. “I don’t know how to interpret the reason behind this cannibalism. It can be purely food, but it can also be symbolic … The reason remains open,” she says.

Source: AFP [December 30, 2016]


  1. The Donner Party on the California Trail ate the fallen and were not too proud of it, but it kept them alive. I am hesitant to paint these primitive people from long ago .. with too wide a paint brush. Yes, it proves they ate human flesh or as pointed out, someone did. But was Neanderthal Cannibalism "wide spread and consistent"?

  2. If quote "studies have found that Neanderthals were actually sophisticated beings who took care of the bodies of the deceased and held burial rituals.", then a reason for acts of cannibalism seems obvious.
    Read Ginsberg "Legends of the Jew" for evidence of despair in famines, or "The jungle is neutral" for similar acts in times of war.



Related articles

Stone Age hunters contributed adaptive variants to present-day Europeans

Modern humans have adapted to their local environments over many thousands of years, but how genetic variation contributed...

Did our early ancestors boil their food in hot springs?

Some of the oldest remains of early human ancestors have been unearthed in Olduvai Gorge, a rift valley...

For First Nations people, effects of European contact are recorded in the genome

A study of the genomes of 25 individuals who lived 1,000 to 6,000 years ago on the north...

Upper jaw of Homo Erectus discovered in Java

A team studying the geology and dating of the Sangiran lower fossil beds has unearthed a 1.5 million-year-old...

Many U.S. women have children by more than one man

The first national study of the prevalence of multiple partner fertility shows that 28 percent of all U.S....

What explains our lower back pain? Anthropologists turn to Neanderthals for answers

Examining the spines of Neanderthals, an extinct human relative, may explain back-related ailments experienced by humans today, a...

Researchers identify the sex of skeletons based on elbow features

In an effort to help identify skeletal remains of Thai descent, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine...

Mother tongue comes from your prehistoric father

Language change among our prehistoric ancestors came about via the arrival of immigrant men - rather than women...