Mobile women were key to cultural exchange in Stone Age and Bronze Age Europe


At the end of the Stone Age and in the early Bronze Age, families were established in a surprising manner in the Lechtal, south of Augsburg, Germany. The majority of women came from outside the area, probably from Bohemia or Central Germany, while men usually remained in the region of their birth. This so-called patrilocal pattern combined with individual female mobility was not a temporary phenomenon, but persisted over a period of 800 years during the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age.

Mobile women were key to cultural exchange in Stone Age and Bronze Age Europe
The burials of the foreign women did not differ from that of the native population, indicating that 
they were integrated into the local community [Credit: © Stadtarchäologie Augsburg]

The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, result from a research collaboration headed by Philipp Stockhammer of the Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology and Archaeology of the Roman Provinces of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. In addition to archaeological examinations, the team conducted stable isotope and ancient DNA analyses.

Corina Knipper of the Curt-Engelhorn-Centre for Archaeometry, as well as Alissa Mittnik and Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena and the University of Tuebingen jointly directed these scientific investigations.

“Individual mobility was a major feature characterizing the lives of people in Central Europe even in the 3rd and early 2nd millennium,” states Philipp Stockhammer. The researchers suspect that it played a significant role in the exchange of cultural objects and ideas, which increased considerably in the Bronze Age, in turn promoting the development of new technologies.

Mobile women were key to cultural exchange in Stone Age and Bronze Age Europe
Burial of a woman whose origin was not local in the Lechtal 
[Credit: © Stadtarchäologie Augsburg]

For this study, the researchers examined the remains of 84 individuals using genetic and isotope analyses in conjunction with archeological evaluations. The individuals were buried between 2500 and 1650 BC in cemeteries that belonged to individual homesteads, and that contained between one and several dozen burials made over a period of several generations. “The settlements were located along a fertile loess ridge in the middle of the Lech valley. Larger villages did not exist in the Lechtal at this time,” states Stockhammer.

“We see a great diversity of different female lineages, which would occur if over time many women relocated to the Lech Valley from somewhere else,” remarks Alissa Mittnik on the genetic analyses and Corina Knipper explains: “Based on analysis of strontium isotope ratios in molars, which allows us to draw conclusions about the origin of people, we were able to ascertain that the majority of women did not originate from the region.” The burials of the women did not differ from that of the native population, indicating that the formerly foreign women were integrated into the local community.

From an archaeological point of view, the new insights prove the importance of female mobility for cultural exchange in the Bronze Age. They also allow us to view the immense extent of early human mobility in a new light. “It appears that at least part of what was previously believed to be migration by groups is based on an institutionalized form of individual mobility,” declares Stockhammer.

Source: Max Planck Society [September 04, 2017]


  1. When you are abducted to boat from other side of the sea, can you go nowhere? No you cant you has to live there where you are taken. What we know about woman slavery and war this is exactly it, genes spear and it stops inbreeding, good and bad similarly.When you call abducted or slave woman to mobile woman it is insult to womanhood. You cant say from bones that how and why they are mobilized, forced or volunteers. Wht we know about bronze age culure is that slavery was common, in mid europe and Mediterranean.Vikings bring it to Finland. This much I am feminist, lying has to be stopped.

  2. It is a bit misleading to label this pattern "patrilocality" or female "mobility." What happened to locally born females? Is there any indication that they were migrating out of the area? Or were the local people practicing female infanticide and then obtaining women as part of a trading relationship with nearby areas? I don't think we can necessarily conclude that these women were slaves, as Sarjana suggests. But I certainly agree that the characterization of female "mobility" is pretty benign, given the lack of any explanation of what happened to the locally born women.