Climate change and drought in ancient times


Share post:

The influence of climate on agriculture is believed to be a key factor in the rise and fall of societies in the Ancient Near East. Dr. Simone Riehl of Tübingen University’s Institute for Archaeological Science and the Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment has headed an investigation into archaeological finds of grain in order to find out what influence climate had on agriculture in early farming societies. Her findings are published in this week’s PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Climate change and drought in ancient times
Archaeological researchers are using stable carbon isotope data from archaeobotanical 
barley grains to measure drought stress signals to study climate-related changes
 in agricultural production [Credit: Simone Riehl, University of Tübingen]

She and her team analyzed grains of barley up to 12,000 years old from 33 locations across the Fertile Crescent to ascertain if they had had enough water while growing and ripening. Riehl found that periods of drought had had noticeable and widely differing effects on agriculture and societies in the Ancient Near East, with settlements finding a variety of ways to deal with the problem.

The 1,037 ancient samples were between 12,000 and 2,500 years old. They were compared with modern samples from 13 locations in the former Fertile Crescent. Dr. Riehl and her team measured the grains’ content of two stable carbon isotopes. When barley grass gets insufficient water while growing, the proportion of heavier carbon isotopes deposited in its cells will be higher than normal. The two isotopes 12C und 13C remain stable for thousands of years and can be measured precisely – giving Simone Riehl and her colleagues reliable information on the availability of water while the plants were growing.

They found that many settlements were affected by drought linked to major climate fluctuations. “Geographic factors and technologies introduced by humans played a big role and influenced societies’ options for development as well as their particular ways of dealing with drought,” says Riehl. Her findings indicate that harvests in coastal regions of the northern Levant were little affected by drought; but further inland, drought lead to the need for irrigation or, in extreme cases, abandonment of the settlement.

The findings give archaeologists clues as to how early agricultural societies dealt with climate fluctuations and differing local environments. “They can also help evaluate current conditions in regions with a high risk of crop failures,” Riehl adds. The study is part of a German Research Foundation-backed project looking into the conditions under which Ancient Near Eastern societies rose and fell.

Source: Universitaet Tübingen [August 12, 2014]



Related articles

Ancient lake challenges understanding of evolution

An ancient lake could hold the key to our understanding of how complex life evolved on Earth, according...

Mystery of the gruesome Aztec skull masks solved

Ancient human skull masks left as offerings at an Aztec temple may have been crafted from the bones...

Little Ice Age led to migration of island hopping arctic foxes

The Little Ice Age allowed a new wave of arctic foxes to colonise Iceland, according to new research....

Woolly rhino skull found in Cambridgeshire Fens

The skull of a woolly rhinoceros thought to be at least 35,000 years old has been found in...

150-year-old tunnel found at Mysuru Palace

A tunnel leading to the Mysuru Palace premises was unearthed near Vishwamanava Park on Nanjangud Road in the...

How did phosphate get into RNA?

The phosphate ion is almost insoluble and is one of the most inactive of Earth's most abundant phosphate...

Test flight over Peru ruins could revolutionize archaeological mapping

Archaeological sites that currently take years to map will be completed in minutes if tests underway in Peru...

Rare braincase provides insight into dinosaur brain

Experts have described one of the most complete sauropod dinosaur braincases ever found in Europe. The find could...