Clever songbird’s genome may hold key to evolution of learning

Date:

Share post:

A well-known songbird, the great tit, has revealed its genetic code, offering researchers new insight into how species adapt to a changing planet. Their initial findings suggest that epigenetics — what’s on rather than what’s in the gene — may play a key role in the evolution of memory and learning. And that’s not just true for birds. An international research team led by the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) and Wageningen University will publish these findings in Nature Communications.

Clever songbird's genome may hold key to evolution of learning
The great tit is a well-known song bird [Credit: Koos Dansen]

“People in our field have been waiting for this for decades,” explain researchers Kees van Oers and Veronika Laine from the Netherlands Institute of Ecology. The reference genome of their favourite model species, the great tit, is “a powerful toolbox that all ecologists and evolutionary biologists should know about.”

Coming from a single Dutch bird, the genetic code of the assembled reference genome will help to reveal the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution. This is essential for understanding how wild species adapt to our changing planet.

In addition to looking at the genome, the research team have also determined the so-called transcriptome and methylome. The latter belongs to the field of epigenetics: the study of what you can inherit not in but ‘on’ your genes. Specific DNA sequences in the genome can be ‘methylated’: methyl groups are added to them, modifying how the genes function.

The research team sequenced the complete genomes of a further 29 great tit individuals from different parts of Europe. This enabled them to identify regions in the great tit’s genome that have been under selection during recent evolution of the bird. These regions appeared to be overrepresented for genes related to learning and cognition.

“The great tit has evolved to be smart,” says Van Oers. “Very smart.” It’s not your average bird, as it belongs to the top 3% smartest birds when it comes to learning new behaviour. That makes it a perfect candidate for research into the evolution of learning, memory and cognitive processes.

What that research has revealed are so-called conserved patterns of methylation in those same regions, present not only in birds but also in humans and other mammals. It’s evidence of a correlation between epigenetic processes such as methylation and the rate of molecular evolution: “the more methylation, the more evolution.”

And so the great tit has once more proved that its role as a model species in a variety of biological research fields for over 60 years is by no means coincidental.

Source: Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW) [January 25, 2016]

ADVERTISEMENT

spot_img

Related articles

Stream of stars in Andromeda satellite galaxy shows cosmic collision

The Andromeda Galaxy is surrounded by a swarm of small satellite galaxies. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute,...

Chinese archaeology proves early East-West links

The vast but little known north-western Chinese region of Xinjiang has presented a University of Sydney archaeologist with...

Ancient tectonic activity was trigger for ice ages

For hundreds of millions of years, Earth's climate has remained on a fairly even keel, with some dramatic...

Ancient administrative complex discovered in northern Peru

Archaeologists working in the northern Peruvian region of Piura recently discovered an administrative complex that they believe was...

Findings offer new view of early Indian life along Sacramento River

Indians living along the Sacramento River thousands of years ago gradually shifted toward eating more freshwater fish and...

Sustainable practices of the Iroquois revealed

Every longhouse hearth – every reworked brass kettle and fractured deer bone unearthed by Cornell archaeologist Kurt Jordan...

Distant fish relatives share looks

James Cook University scientists have found evidence that even distantly related Australian fish species have evolved to look...

Out of Africa: The origin of donkeys

After collecting and analyzing donkey and wild ass DNA from all over the world, scientists have concluded that...